Horkheimer's Criticism of Husserl
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This article focuses on Max Horkheimer's criticism of Husserl's phenomenology in basic philosophical matters such as method, theory, logic, truth, metaphysics, etc. Horkheimer objects to Husserl's conception of philosophy as a mathesis universalis and of science as relativistic research. However, he finds Husserl's criticism of scientific rationalism the most important step for the legitimacy of philosophy. According to him, Husserl's method is intended to be a science of apriority. But his understanding of apriority is static, is radically abstract, and overlooks the dialectical relation. Therefore, his method is ahistorical and undialectical. Horkheimer does not interpret Husserl's idealism in the sense of classical idealism. However, he believes that the positivistic and Cartesian implications in Husserl's philosophy made his method less fruitful in concrete situations. Consequently, he calls Husserl's phenomenology abstract positivism, traditional theory and a bourgeois ideology. Horkheimer's critique focuses on Husserl's early period of phenomenology.