INNOVATIONS OF ENGINEER-ARCHITECTS ON CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF BRIDGES
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The professional role of the architect is defined as "building art and science" in its simplest form and is to design a physical environment as a suitable place for certain human behaviors. This physical environment should meet the basic needs of the user and create a space to ensure certain norms such as survival, safety, physical health, mental health. However, an architectural design is not independent, while providing a facility for a limited number of human activities and focusing on its specific goals and functions; it is part of a hierarchical environmental system. Therefore, an architectural design is an intervention and adaptation to a large natural or man-made environment. In this context, architecture is a special action that is simultaneously introverted and specific; it is also a general public action on the environment (Herbert, 1999; p108). The role of the civil engineer is defined as "the art of managing large power resources in nature for human use and comfort" and shaping the macro environment according to the needs of the human. This definition is practically refers to the design of large urban and regional projects such as bridges and aqueducts, roads and highways, canals and railways, ports and dams, infrastructure schemes for drainage and sewage. Generally, the scope that defines the field of activity of the engineer is significantly expanded to include the design and construction of large-scale buildings, such as train stations, factories, exhibition halls or sports stadiums, in which innovative structural design or complex mechanical installations dominate (Skempton, 1996). Architecture, which has turned into a heterogeneous profession, is associated with many disciplines and a wide range of specialized knowledge (İlerisoy ve Aycı, 2019). In this regard, the most advanced interaction takes place with engineering discipline in terms of both theory and practice. Despite the professional differences between architects and engineers; they use their professional knowledge, skills and experience for common interests of society, the protection of universal human achievements or cultural heritage, and for the development of human well-being. Their responsibility for the health, safety and well-being of society is always above their personal interests or the interests of the community of architects and engineers (Kumbasar, 2003; p17). In the early design period, architects adopted flexible solutions to their designs freely. However they were concerned that if a structural engineer joined the design process at this stage, their design discoveries could be suppressed. In contrast, architect Arthut Erickson said, "The structure is the strongest element of the form, and even if the structure of the building is not decided at the beginning of the design, then it may disrupt or change all the other determinants of the building." The success of collaborative designs of architects and engineers in the 20th and 21st centuries structures show that there is a positive attitude on this issue among the professions. However, there are also issues that create conflicts between these professions. Structural engineers criticize the lack of structural understanding of architects, being late to get advice for appropriate structural solutions, and architects' overall standards of cooperation. On the other hand, architects criticize engineers for their lack of innovation and poor participation in architectural design ideas (Charleson ve Pirie, 2009; p102). Despite these criticisms; architecture and engineering has been one of the unquestionable components of life since the beginning of the human need for shelter. The first examples started in the Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia regions, when people p2). During the transition to settled life of the nomadic people, the importance of transportation and transportation vehicles has become an increasing need with the development of wheels and sails. In this context, "bridges", which are one of the most important structures that facilitate transportation in rugged areas gained importance. Until about 1950, bridges were built by professionals without a clear distinction between engineers and architects. While there was no distinction between engineers and architects at that time; after 1950, engineer-architect distinction was made for the construction of bridges and all other building groups. In this study, it was evaluated how different perspectives of people who have both architect and engineer ethics are reflected on the design of bridges.