Geleneksel Diyarbakır Örgü Peynirinin Karakteristik Özelliklerinin Tespit Edilmesi ve Gıda Güvenliği Açısından Değerlendirilmesi
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It was aimed to elaborate the production method of the traditional Diyarbakir Örgü (Knitting) cheese, and to evaluate in terms of food safety as well as the determination of the characteristics of the cheese. For this purpose, raw milk samples and fresh Diyarbakir Örgü cheese samples were taken from 8 small dairy plants after the production process of the cheese. The approximate composition, acidity and total mesophilic aerobic bacteria load of the raw milk samples were analyzed. Also, composition, biochemical, microbiological, and textural parameters of the cheese samples were investigated on the 1th, 15th, 30th, 60th, 90th, and 120th days of storage. The averages of dry matter (%), fat (%), fat-free dry matter (%), protein (%), lactose (%), ash (%), SH, pH and total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (log cfu/g) load of the raw milk used in the production of the cheese were determined as 14.28, 4.37, 9.91, 4.41, 4.63, 0.87, 11.55, 6.54 and 7.51, respectively. It was observed that raw sheep's milk with trace amount of cow or/and goat milk is used in the production of the traditional cheese. After renneting about 54-70 min, the curd is broken, whey off and fermented until the acidity reached to 5.10-5.47 pH. Then, the curd is scalded in hot water at 75-87 ºC. And then, the curd is shaped by weaving typically in the form of braiding and placed in the brine. After that, the cheese is consumed freshly or stored in brine at 6±1ºC at least for 1 month. The average values of some parameters of the mature cheese (120 days) can be listed as follows: Dry matter 52.84%, fat-in-dry matter 37.88%, protein 23.47%, salt-in-dry matter 15.48%, titratable acidity 22.96 SH, pH 5.47, acid value 0.46 mg KOH/g fat, and ripening index 5.61%. The average values of the hardness, the gumminess, and the chewiness, which textural properties of the ripened cheese, 6852 N, 4480 N and 3408 mJ were determined at the end of the ripening period, respectively. On the other hand, the presence and loads (log cfu/g) of coliforms, fecal coliforms, E. coli, and yeast-mold of the ripened cheese were calculated <1.00, <1.00, <1.00, and 2.60, respectively. Considering the microbiological data, it could be said the fresh cheese has a potential infectious risk poses in terms of consumer health. However for ripened cheese, the risk is minimized and showed compliance with the relevant Standard in terms of coliform bacteria on the 90th day, in terms of E. coli on the 60th day of ripening.