AMMI Model to Assess Durum Wheat Genotypes in Multi-Environment Trials
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The goal of this research was to assess the stability and yield performance of 150 durum wheat genotypes in multi-environment trials in two locations (Diyarbakir and Kiziltepe), in 2011-2012, and 2012-2013 growing seasons. The trials were designed by Lattice Experimental Design with two replications (incomplete block design). The AMMI (Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction) and GEI (GenotypexEnvironment Interaction) analysis were used in the study to estimate GEI effects on grain yield, because of plant breeders' great interest in these models for breeding programs. AMMI evaluation indicated that genotypes made the most important contributions to treatments Sum of Squares (59.8%), environments (3.5%), and GEI (36.7%), respectively, suggesting that grain yield had been affected by environment. IPCA 1 and IPCA 2 axes (Principal Component) were significant as P< 0.01 and explained 63.8 and 36.2%, respectively. Results showed that Kiziltepe 2013 was more stable and high yielding, meanwhile Diyarbakir 2012 and Diyarbakir 2013 environments were unstable and low yielding. According to stability variance, usually the province lines were more productive and stable than some old cultivars and many landraces/genotypes. Moreover, genotype G24 was more effective in all environments. The GEI model according to AMMI analysis suggested that this genotype can be considered as a candidate, due to extensive adaptability and high performances in all environments.