Oxidative stress, apoptosis, inflammation, and proliferation modulator function of visnagin provide gonadoprotective activity in testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury
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CitationSagir, S., Seker, U., Pekince Ozoner, M., Yuksel, M., & Demir, M. (2023). Oxidative stress, apoptosis, inflammation, and proliferation modulator function of visnagin provide gonadoprotective activity in testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury. European review for medical and pharmacological sciences, 27(20), 9968–9977. https://doi.org/10.26355/eurrev_202310_34176
OBJECTIVE: Visnagin (Vis) is a compound found in the flowers and seeds of the Ammi visnaga plant with promising antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We aimed to investigate the dose-dependent gonadoprotective effects of visnagin in rats while considering oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation-related protein expression levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-eight adult rats were divided into four groups of seven animals each; control, ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), I/R+30Vis, and I/R+60Vis. Animals in control received no surgical application and were sacrificed at the end of the experiment. The rats in I/R, I/R + Vis30, and I/R + Vis60 were exposed to testicular ischemia and the animals in I/R + Vis30, and I/R + Vis60 groups received either 30 or 60 mg/kg visnagin intraperitoneal. At the end of the experiment, testis tissues were used for the measurement of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation. RESULTS: Our microscopic examinations indicated that I/R resulted in testicular degenerations and morphological alterations, which were improved in visnagin-treated animals. The biochemical analyses demonstrated that oxidative stress in the I/R group increased significantly (p<0.05) compared to the control group. The immunohistochemical examinations showed that pro-apoptotic Bax and Caspase 3 expressions, and pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels were significantly up-regulated (p<0.05) but proliferating nuclear antigen (PCNA) levels in I/R group was significantly (p<0.001) down-regulated compared to the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Ischemia leading to testicular torsion is a reproductive health-affecting problem, and current surgical treatment methods might be insufficient to recover the testis due to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Our observations indicate that visnagin is a potential co-modality along with the surgical interventions for the recovery of ischemia encountered testis, but we believe the requirement of more detailed studies to explore the underlying signaling pathways and the strength of visnagin against testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury.