The Effects of the Motivation of Seeking Diversity in Street Foods on Satisfaction: The Case of İstanbul

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In present study, the impact of hedonic (Kim vd., 2021; Hiamey vd., 2015; Mathye ve Maliwichi, 2015; Yusuf, 2017), utilitarian (Crowley vd., 1992; Lin vd., 2012; Yoshida vd., 2013; Hill vd., 2016), social (de Charms ve Muir, 1978; Tauber, 1972; Santich, 2004; Tikkanen, 2007) and diversity-seeking motivations (Kim vd., 2021; Zifferblatt vd., 1980; Pliner, 1982; Quan ve Wang, 2004) on satisfaction with street food products, which are one of the gastronomic tourism products, was investigated. Data was collected through purposive sampling technique, which is one of the non-probability sampling techniques, using a survey method. The sample consisted of individuals who visited Istanbul and stayed at least one night and consumed Istanbul street food. A total of 439 people participated in the study, and 416 usable data were analyzed. The collected data was obtained through face-to-face interviews and electronically generated surveys. In line with the aim of the study, a measurement tool was created by adapting scales from various sources such as Kargiglioğlu (2019), Di Matteo (2020), Hani (2019), Van Trijp and Steenkamp (1992), Gupta and Duggal (2020) and Ab Karim et al. (2011). To determine the appropriate analysis methods for the data obtained from the survey, kurtosis and skewness values were first examined. Frequency tables were created to obtain the frequency distributions of the variables being studied. Factor analysis was applied to combine related variables and to create a smaller number of meaningful new variables or to explain the relationships between factors and indicators. Validity and reliability test were conducted. Following the factor analysis tests of the scales, independent sample t-tests and One Way Anova were performed to determine if there were significant differences in the responses provided by the participants. In addition, correlation and regression analyses were conducted to test the relationships between the variables included in the study. As a result of the conducted analysis, it was observed that the ratio of male and female participants was very close to each other, with married and 41-50 age group participants being the most frequent, while participants aged 51 and above had the lowest frequency. Additionally, it was found that single participants were more inclined to seek variety compared to married participants. There was also a significant difference in terms of food authenticity seeking and adapting to food changes between participants with monthly individual income between 0-4253 TL and 4254-5000 TL and participants with monthly individual income between 6001-7000 TL. This result indicates that as income level increases, individuals’ need for food variety and change also increases, and they try to meet these needs through street flavors. The participants made a total of 1818 markings regarding their preference for Istanbul street flavors that they frequently consume, and it was found that the majority of these markings (%17.5) were related to snacks, which is supportive of Aşık Akşit’s (2019)study. Following snacks, the options were seafood (%16.6), “main dishes” (%13), garnishes (%11.2), offal (%10.8), “pastries” (%10), desserts (%9.9), beverages (%6.6), and unprocessed fruits and vegetables (%4.4). Regarding the participants’ motivations for consuming Istanbul street flavors, a total of 922 markings were made, and the majority of these markings were related to flavor (%24.5), which is supportive of Perez-Villarreal et al.’s (2020) study. Flavor was followed by the motivation of getting together with friends and having fun (%20.3), which is supportive of Bayram’s (2020) study. The motivation for diversity (%19.8), which ranked third, was supported by Lenglet and Giannelloni’s (2016) study, while the motivations for saving time (%18.9) and price (%15.5) were supported by İrigüler and Öztürk’s (2016) study. Furthermore, it was observed that the participants’ satisfaction with Istanbul street flavors was relatively high (3.50), and there was a weak positive relationship (r=.451; p<0.01) between satisfaction and the variable of diversity-seeking. This suggests that the variety of Istanbul street flavors may not be entirely sufficient in ensuring consumer satisfaction. For researchers planning similar studies, it can be suggested to conduct studies on diversity-seeking motivation and satisfaction related to street food in rural areas outside of densely populated metropolises such as Ankara and Istanbul, to compare two or more destinations in terms of diversity-seeking motivation and satisfaction related to street food, to conduct studies on diversity of unique street food varieties in regions and cities and their place and importance in gastronomy tourism movement, to determine the impact of diversity seeking motivation on sustainable tourism, and to conduct studies on the effects of diversity seeking motivation on visitation or repeat visitation. It is also recommended to conduct studies targeting foreign consumers in addition to local consumers.


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