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  • Öğe
    Biosensors for the detection of pathogenic bacteria: current status and future perspectives
    (Future Medicine, 2024) Dicle, Yalçın; Karameşe, Murat
    Pathogenic microorganisms pose significant threats to human health, food safety and environmental integrity. Rapid and accurate detection of these pathogens is essential to mitigate their impact. Fast, sensitive detection methods such as biosensors also play a critical role in preventing outbreaks and controlling their spread. In recent years, biosensors have emerged as a revolutionary technology for pathogen detection. This review aims to present the current developments in biosensor technology, investigate the methods by which these developments are used in the detection of pathogenic bacteria and highlight future perspectives on the subject.
  • Öğe
    A Study on The Presence of Legionella pneumophila in Hospital Water Samples from Eastern Turkey
    (Dicle Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi, 2023) Aydın, Elif; Dicle, Yalçın; Tuna, Duygu Kübra
    Objective: Legionnaires' disease is a fatal form of pneumonia brought on by an infection mostly caused by the 60 different species of Legionella pneumophila. Legionnaires' illness is caused by Legionella spp.-contaminated water systems. In this work, we sought to analyze Legionella species, serogroups (SG), and contamination in the water sources of hospitals in five regions in eastern Turkey. Methods: Between January 2017 and December 2018, a total of 1008 samples were examined, including 2 cooling towers, 62 hot water tanks, 104 cold water tanks, and 840 faucet shower heads. Samples were collected by the standard culture method L. pneumophila SG 1, it was analyzed for L. pneumophila SG 2-16 and Legionella spp. The samples were inoculated into BCYE and GVPC medium, and the colonies were assessed using a latex agglutination test, followed by species- and serotype-level identifications. Results: In our study, a total of 1008 water samples were examined, of which 35.31% (356) belonged to 2017, while 64.68% (652) belonged to 2018. 83.33% of the water samples were taken from faucets and shower heads, 10.32% from the cold water tank, 6.15% from the hot water tank, and 0.2% from the cooling tower, and the highest positivity rate was observed in the hot water tank with 12.60%. 7.04% (71) of the samples were positive, and 16.9% (12) of the positive samples were L. pneumophila SG 1, 77.46% (55) L. pneumophila SG 2-14 was detected, while 5.63% (4) were nonpneumophila (Legionella spp) it has been determined as. Conclusions: Legionella disease remains a significant public health threat. The water tanks of hospitals and hotels should be investigated more thoroughly, the necessary disinfection procedures should be carried out frequently. All hospitals should have water management policies, and towns and large buildings should establish comprehensive water system management programs that decrease Legionella growth and transmission. To enhance prevention measures and clinical diagnosis, we also need quicker ways of detecting Legionella in water systems and clinical samples.
  • Öğe
    COVID-19 Pandemisi Süresince Huzurevinde Kalan Yaşlıların Hijyen Alışkanlıkları Üzerine Bir İnceleme
    (Muş Alparslan Üniversitesi, 2023) Efe, Mehmet; Dicle, Yalçın; Pamuk, Deniz; Yalçın
    Abstract: Objective: Because the number of aging population is rising gradually this descriptive study is to evaluate the behaviors of individuals’ hygiene residing in residential homes during COVID-19 Pandemic. Method: The study was conducted through face-to-face interviews with 100 elderly individuals residing in nursing homes in two cities within the borders of the Eastern Anatolia Region, one of which has normal and the other metropolitan status. Data were collected with a socio-demographic information questionnaire and a questionnaire examining behaviors related to the mask-distance-cleanliness triad to protect against disease. Pearson chi-square analysis was applied to express the relationship between the groups. Results: A statistically significant relationship was found between the variable of the participants' COVID-19 recovery status and the use of masks indoors. (p: 0,008; r= .514) It was determined that there was a statistically significant relationship between the variable of COVID-19 transmission status of residential home residents and the use of hand sanitizer also there was a statistically significant relationship between the variable of the participants' status of having COVID-19 and the frequency of visitors to their rooms (p: 0,001; r= .646). Conclusions: Although the hygiene behaviors gained in order to prevent and reduce transmission during the pandemic are approaching the ideal level, it has been understood that more attention should be paid to the use of masks and social distance.
  • Öğe
    Bir Flavonoid Olan Gossypin'in, Standard Bakteri ve Maya Suşları Üzerindeki Antibakteriyel, Antifungal, Antibiyofilm, Antiadherent ve Antiinvazif Aktivitelerinin İn vitro Olarak Araştırılması
    (Dicle Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi, 2023) Karameşe, Murat; Çınar, İrfan; Özgür, Didem; Dicle, Yalçın; Yalçın
    Amaç: Planlanan çalışmamızda Hibiscus vitofolius isimli bitkinin majör komponentlerinden biri olan gossypin isimli etken maddenin mikroorganizmalar ve onların virülans özellikleri (biyofilm oluşturma, adezyon ve invazyon yeteneği gibi) üzerine olan etkilerinin araştırılması amaçlanmıştır. Yöntemler: Çalışmamızda, gossypin isimli maddenin 5 farklı türdeki mikroorganizmalar (2 gram pozitif bakteri, 2 gram negatif bakteri ve 1 maya) üzerine olan antibakteriyel ve antifungal etkinlikleri bir mikrodilüsyon yöntemi olan Sıvı Mikrodilüsyon Yöntemi (SMD) ile tespit edilmiştir. Ardından, biyofilm oluşumu; kristal viyole ve MTT testleri uygulanmıştır. Gossypin’in antibiyofilm aktivitesi mikroplaka yöntemi ile tespit edilip, MTT deneyleri ile doğrulanmıştır. Son olarak ise, gossypin’in antiinvazif etkinliğini ölçmek amacıyla Adherent-Invasive Escherichia coli bakterisi ile Caco-2 insan kolon hücreleri enfekte edilerek, AEIC suşunun invazyonu indüklenmiş ve etken maddenin invazyon üzerine olan inhibe edici etkisi araştırılmıştır. Sonuç: Elde edilen sonuçlara göre, gossypin’in doza bağlı olarak antibakteriyel, antifungal ve antibiyofilm etkinliği olduğu saptanmıştır (MİK değerleri 40-80 μg/ml arasındadır). Buna ilave olarak, gossypin dozuna bağlı olarak bakterilerin Caco-2 hücrelerine olan adezyon ve invazyon süreçleri üzerine etkili olduğu saptanmıştır. 160 μg/ml gossypin uygulaması bakteri adezyonunu %67 oranına kadar ve bakteri invazyonunu %38 oranına kadar düşürmektedir. Yapılan in-vitro çalışmalar sonucunda gossypin’in IC50 dozunun 28,20 μg/ml olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Tartışma: Elde edilen veriler, gossypin'in birden fazla antimikrobiyal aktiviteye sahip olduğunu ve bu etkilerin mekanizmalarının saptanması için gelecekte detaylı moleküler çalışmaların yapılması gerektiğini gösterdi.
  • Öğe
    Detection of Human Brucellosis by Brucellacapt and Rose Bengal Test in the Endemic Area
    (Fazile Nur Ekinci Akdemir, 2023) Aydın, Elif; Dicle, Yalçın; Kaçtaş, Şerif; Gümüş, Ali Furkan
    Abstract: Although brucellosis is the most common zoonosis in the world, it remains an infectious disease that has not received sufficient attention. There are a few tests detecting brucellosis by serum. Rose Bengal Test is an advantageous one. Our aim with this study was to compare Rose Bengal and Brucellacapt tests in serum samples and draw attention to the advantages of the test. Between June 2019 and June 2021, 7827 serum samples sent to the public health laboratory with a provisional diagnosis of brucellosis were evaluated. The Rose Bengal and Brucellacapt test (Vircell, Spain) was used to diagnose infection. Samples with antibody titer ≥1/160 were considered positive. Of the 7827 samples included in the study, 354 (4.6%) of the total 7677 serum samples tested were RBT positive, 118 (3.1%) of the 3776 samples tested were BCAP positive, and 118 (3.3%) of the 3626 samples tested were both RBT and BCAP positive. It was found that seropositivity was significantly higher in female patients (p<0.10). RBT and BCAP test positivity were most frequently observed in the 25-34 year age group. Considering brucellosis cases in terms of seasonal changes; 10.7% of cases were found in spring, 52.4% in summer, 20.9% in fall, and 16% in winter. In suspected cases, RBT is still considered the ideal detection method because it is easy to use, inexpensive, sensitive, and provides rapid results. It was concluded that the BCAP test is suitable for diagnosis due to its ability to detect blocker and high titer antibodies.
  • Öğe
    Retrospective Evaluation of Tularemia Cases in Muş Province: 2011-2022
    (Mardin Artuklu University, 2023) Dicle, Yalçın; Aydın, Elif; Şen Gündoğan, Nesibe Efruz; Yalçın
    Objective: Tularemia is a bacterial disease of humans, wild and domestic animals. Recently, an increase in human tularemia cases has been observed in many countries worldwide. This study aimed to calculate the incidence of tularemia cases in Muş, determine the seasonal distribution of cases, and describe the socio demographic and clinical characteristics of tularemia cases detected over a twelve-year period. Methods: Data from 162 patients diagnosed clinically and serologically with tularemia and admitted to health facilities in Muş province between 2011 and 2022 were retrospectively analysed. Results: In our study, among 162 tularemia patients with F. tularensis microagglutination test titres of 1/160 and above, the ratio of male and female cases was equal (50%), and the mean age was 24.51 years. In the twelve-year evaluation, there were two major epidemics, and the most cases were seen in 2018 with 37 cases. Most cases were observed in winter (38.3%) and autumn (25.3%). Oropharyngeal tularemia was the most common form (64.2%) among the cases evaluated. Similar disease was found in 33.3% of patients living in the same neighbourhood as the patients, and no mortality was observed in any of the patients. Conclusion: As the oropharyngeal form is the most common, contact with contaminated water should be questioned, rodent and tick populations should be monitored and detailed epidemiological studies should be conducted. We believe that hygiene and sanitation measures are important with regard to tularemia outbreaks.
  • Öğe
    Investigation of the Protective Activity of Baicalein on the Lungs via Regulation of Various Cellular Responses in Rats Exposed to Experimental Sepsis
    (Oxford University Press, 2023) Dicle, Yalçın; Aydın, Elif; Şeker, Uğur
    Backgrounds In the present study, a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced experimental sepsis rat model was used to explore the effects of baicalein on inflammatory cytokine levels and oxidative stress as well as the possible regulatory role of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). Methods For that purpose, 42 Wistar albino rats were equally divided into control, sham, sepsis, B50 + S, B100 + S, S + B50, and S + B100 groups. The B50 + S and B100 + S groups received baicalein before the induction of sepsis, while the S + B50 and S + B100 groups received baicalein afterwards. Experimental sepsis in related groups is generated through ligation of cecum and a puncture in cecal wall. Serum samples were used for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) analyses, and tissue Malondialdehyde (MDA), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Glutathione (GSH), IL-6, and NF-κB levels were measured. Results Compared to the control group, there were significantly increases in the serum TNF-α, IL-6, tissue MDA, and NF-κB levels and decreases in the tissue SOD and GSH levels in the septic group (P < 0.05). Compared to the septic group, inflammation and oxidative stress were reduced in the baicalein-treated groups. Although all of the pre- and post-treatment protocols alleviated inflammation and oxidative stress to varying degrees, pre-treatment with 100 mg/kg was the most successful. Conclusions Findings of this study indicated that baicalein has the potential to reduce sepsis-related oxidative stress and inflammation in the lungs and that pathological outcomes could be regulated via NF-κB transcription factor activity.
  • Öğe
    The distribution and the antimicrobial susceptibility features of microorganisms isolated from the burn wounds; a ten-year retrospective analysis
    (Oxford University Press, 2023) Özkaçmaz, Ayşe; Dicle, Yalçın; Bayram, Yasemin; Parlak, Mehmet; Akış, Feride; Çallı, İskan
    In this study we aimed to evaluate the distribution features and antimicrobial susceptibility test results of the microorganisms isolated from the wounds of pediatric and adult burn patients. The culture and susceptibility test results of the microorganisms isolated from the wound swabs of the patients hospitalised in a tertiary burn care center in 10-years period, were retrospectively screened on the microbiology department databases. Their distribution of isolated microorganisms regarding species and susceptibility test results were compared with previous studies. A total of 367 microorganisms isolated from the burn wounds of 293 patients (13± 18.9 years, F/M: 0.93) (73 adult and 220 pediatric patients), were included in this study. A solitary agent was isolated in 239 (81.6%) patients, while two were isolated in 43 (14.7%) and three or more agents in 11 (3.8%). From these, 33% of the isolated microorganisms were gram positive cocci, 61% were gram negative bacteria and 6% were Candida spp. The most common isolated microorganisms were Staphylococcus aureus (18.5%), Pseudomonas spp. (16.9) and Escherichia coli (%11.2), while the least common was Streptococcus spp. (2.5%). Methicillin resistance was 15% among the S. aureus strains. No resistance was observed against levofloxacin, vancomycin, teicoplanin, linezolid, daptomycin, fusidic acid and tigecycline in S. aureus strains. The highest resistance rates were observed against levofloxacin (64%), tobramycin (64%), pip/tazobactam (63%), imipenem (63%), and the lowest against colistin (5%) and ceftazidime (29%), among Pseudomonas spp. The most common causative agents in burn wound infections and their current antimicrobial susceptibility features should be well identified, in order for prevention of serious complications and optimal management the condition to occur.