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  • Öğe
    Corn processing by pulsed electric fields with respect to microbial inactivation and improvement of seed vigour
    (Elsevier, 2024) Akdemir Evrendilek, Gülhan; Atmaca, Bahar; Uzuner, Sibel
    Pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment of corn grains to improve seed vigour and inactivation of endogenous microflora by energies ranging from 1.20 to 28.8 J were applied to determine effectiveness of applied energies on germination rate (GR), normal seedling rate (NSR), electrical conductivity (EC), ability to germinate under salt (100- and 200 mM salt) and cold (at 10 °C for 7 days and at 25 °C for 5 days) stresses. Moreover, the effect of PEF treatments was further investigated for the inactivation of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB), total mold and yeast (TMY), and inactivation rate (%) of Aspergillus parasiticus. Increased energy provided 11.10 % increase in GR, 21.22 % increase in NSR, 95.50 % increase in germination at 10 °C for 7 days. Germination under stress conditions revealed 32.53 %, 68.35 %, and 76 % increase in germination at 25 °C for 5 days, under 100 mM- and 200 mM NaCI salt stresses. Inactivation on the mean initial TAMB and TMY were approximately 9.25 and 7.93 log, respectively, with 63.33 ± 0.22 % reduction in A. parasiticus culture. PEF treated corn seedlings had stronger and taller body formation with stronger roots. The most optimal processing parameters were detected as 300 Hz, 28.80 J, and 19.78 sec. PEF treatment carries a high potential to improve corn vigour with inactivation of surface microflora.
  • Öğe
    Comparison of chemical and antimicrobial properties of different nanoparticles synthesized from Verbascum x calcicolum Hub.-Mor. Hybrid
    (Elsevier, 2024) Ercan, Leyla; Günbegi Çalışkan, Emine; Kılıç, Murat
    Recent advances in nanoparticle synthesis have led to an increase in the use of environmentally acceptable plant-derived nanoparticles, given their wide range of applications. Due to their stability and several advantageous characteristics, selenium nanoparticles also stand out in these investigations in addition to metallic nanoparticles like silver, gold, iron, and zinc. These nanoparticles' favorable qualities for human health, such as antioxidant and antibacterial activities, are being studied in addition to their chemical characteristics. This investigation aimed to produce zinc oxide nanoparticles (VcZnO) and selenium nanoparticles (VcSe) from hybrid Verbascum x calcicolum Hub.-Mor. And to examine their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Utilizing the disk diffusion method and well methods, its antibacterial capabilities were studied. In vitro antioxidant capabilities were also assessed utilizing the DPPH, FRAP, and CUPRAC techniques. As a result, it emerged that zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized from hybrid Verbascum x calcicolum were effective on gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 160 mg/ml for VcZnO), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC = 80 mg/ml for VcZnO), Klebsiella pneumoniae (MIC = 40 mg/ml for VcZnO and, MIC = 120 mg/ml for VcSe), Escherichia coli (MIC = 20 mg/ml for VcZnO). While selenium nanoparticles are more favorable in terms of antioxidant capabilities, zinc nanoparticles demonstrate stronger antibacterial properties than selenium nanoparticles. Thus, it has been discovered that the use of different nanoparticles of various plants can be more efficient in different applications. It has also been found that Verbascum x calcicolum is a material that can be used successfully in nanoparticle synthesis.
  • Öğe
    Genetic diversity and population structure of Anatolian Hair goats, an ancient breed
    (Copernicus Publications, 2024) Demiray, Aylin; Gündüz, Zühal; Ata, Nezih; Yılmaz, Onur; Cemal, İbrahim; Konyalı, Aynur; Semen, Zeynep; Altuntaş, Arif; Atik, Ali; Akçay, Ahmet; Baş, Hüseyin; Şenyüz, Hasan Hüseyin
    This study aimed to investigate the genetic characterization and diversity of Hair goats from 10 regions using 20 microsatellite markers. A total of 522 alleles were observed. The INRA0023 locus exhibited the greatest number of alleles (48), while the DRBP1 locus had the highest effective allele number (16.27), and the BM1818 and DRBP1 loci had the highest polymorphic information content value (0.94). The expected heterozygosity value ranged from 0.85 (ILSTS011) to 0.94 (BM1818, SRCRSP15, and DRBP1). The Hair goat populations in Konya and Hatay displayed the lowest and highest allele numbers, with values of 10.40 and 16.25, respectively. The fixation index (FIS) values are significant in defining population structures and determining the extent of heterozygosity losses. The FIS values exhibited a range of 0.031 in Muǧla to 0.226 in Burdur. A total of 107 unique alleles were identified in Hair goat populations. However, it is noteworthy that, out of all the alleles, only 25 had a frequency exceeding 5 %. The results indicate that the microsatellite markers utilized demonstrate sufficient levels of polymorphism, making them appropriate for efficiently investigating the genetic variability of Hair goat populations.
  • Öğe
    Investigation of Antibacterial and Antifungal Efficacy of Zinc and Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized from Nasturtium officinale
    (Ankara University, 2023) Ercan, Leyla
    Nanoparticles are nano-sized materials that can be widely used in fields such as medicine, pharmacology, and industry. The use of natural and easily available materials in nanoparticle synthesis is preferable for economic reasons. Plants are extremely suitable for the synthesis of nanoparticles due to their wide availability and the large number of components they contain with various properties. For this purpose, silver nanoparticles and zinc nanoparticles (AgNPs and ZnNPs), two different nanoparticles were synthesized from an edible plant, watercress (Nasturtium officinale). Scanning electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray, UV-VIS spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR) analyses of these nanoparticles were performed. In addition, the antimicrobial effects of these synthesized nanoparticles were determined using the disk diffusion method. The nanoparticles obtained from Nasturtium officinale were effective on Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes), and fungi (Candida albicans). In particular, AgNPs with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity were obtained from the watercress. While ZnNPs showed inhibition effects of 49% on K. pneumoniae, 51% on S. aureus, and 62% on C. albicans, AgNPs showed inhibition effects of 93% on P. aeruginosa, 87% on S. aureus, 81% on E. coli, 80% on C. albicans, 72% on K. pneumoniae, and 56% on S. pyogenes. The results show that Nasturtium officinale can be used effectively in the production of new biotechnological products, particularly ones with antimicrobial properties.
  • Öğe
    Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Capacity of Quinic Acid
    (Bitlis Eren Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Dergisi, 2022) Ercan, Leyla; Doğru, Mehmet
    Recently, agents with natural antioxidant and antimicrobial properties have been popularly studied. For this purpose, phenolic compounds, terpenes, and organic acids are examined for their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Of these, organic acids are increasingly being used in pharmacology, medicine, food, and industry. Quinic acid is a natural organic compound found in many edible fruits and plants. In this study, the antioxidant effect of quinic acid, which has the structure of cyclohexane carboxylic acid, was determined in vitro using seven different methods (DPPH, ABTS, CUPRAC, DMPD, FRAP, Fe3+ reduction, and Total antioxidant method). In addition, its antimicrobial effect on fungi (C. albicans), gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus, S. pyogenes), and gram-negative bacteria (E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and P. aeruginosa) were determined by the disk diffusion method. As a result, it was found that quinic acid has broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties, but its antioxidant properties are too low to be highlighted. While its antimicrobial activity was quite good, especially on K. pneumoniae E. coli, S. aureus, S. Pyogenes, and P. aeruginosa, it did not show any effect on C. albicans. Although the antioxidant property of quinic acid is low, it showed more antioxidant properties in the DMPD method, which is one of these methods, because it dissolves very well in water.
  • Öğe
    Prediction of Aspergillus parasiticus inhibition and aflatoxin mitigation in red pepper flakes treated by pulsed electric field treatment using machine learning and neural networks
    (Elsevier, 2022) Akdemir Evrendilek, Gulsun; Bulut, Nurullah; Atmaca, Bahar; Uzuner, Sibel
    Presence of aflatoxins in agricultural products is a worldwide problem. Because of their high heat stability and resistance to most of the food processing technologies, aflatoxin degradation is still a big challenge. Thus, efficacy of pulsed electric fields (PEF) by energies ranging from 0.97 to 17.28 J was tested to determine changes in quality properties in red pepper flakes, mitigation of aflatoxins, inactivation of aflatoxin producing Aspergillus parasiticus, reduction in aflatoxin mutagenity, and modelling of A. parasiticus inactivation in addition to aflatoxin mitigation. Maximum inactivation rate of 64.37 % with 17.28 J was encountered on the mean initial A. parasiticus count. A 99.88, 99.47, 97.75, and 99.58 % reductions were obtained on the mean initial AfG1, AfG2, AfB1, and AfB2 concentrations. PEF treated samples by 0.97, 1.36, 5.76, and 17.28 J at 1 μg/plate, 0.97, 1.92, 7.78, 10.80 J at 10 μg/plate, and 0.97, 1.92, 2.92, 4.08, 5.76, 4.86, 6.80, 9.60, 10.80, and 10.89 J at 100 μg/plate were not mutagenic. Modelling with gradient boosting regression tree (GBRT), random forest regression (RFR), and artificial neural network (ANN) provided the lowest RMSE and highest R2 value for GBRT model for the predicted inactivation of A. parasiticus, whereas ANN model provided the lowest RMSE and highest R2 for predicted mitigation of AfG1, AfB1, and AfB2. PEF treatment possess a viable alternative for aflatoxin degradation with reduced mutagenity and without adverse effect on quality properties of red pepper flakes.